Disproportionality has been a persistent problem in special education for decades. Despite mandates outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004), African American students continue to be disproportionately represented in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category in special education (e.g., Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Simmons, Feggins-Azziz, & Chung, 2005). Additionally, African Americans represent the highest percentages of students identified as at risk (Gay, 2000) and receive a disproportionate number of referrals for disciplinary actions (Cartledge & Dukes, 2008) among racial groups. Even though many hypothesized reasons for such disproportionate rates have been researched (e.g., poverty, inherently bad behavior, cultural bias, ineffective behavioral management), the findings are conflicting. Disproportionality among this population continues, and successful educational outcomes are far too infrequent.One promising intervention that can decrease exclusionary practices imposed on African American students and address disproportionality in both special education and disciplinary action is to use functional behavioral assessments and function-based interventions. The effectiveness of FBAs and function-based interventions for students with ED and those at risk for developing ED have been well documented (e.g., Heckaman, Conroy, Fox, & Chait, 2000; Reid & Nelson, 2002). However, only two studies have involved African American students as participants in FBA implementation (i.e., Kamps, Wendland, & Culpepper, 2006; Lo & Cartledge, 2006) and only one included African Americans as a means to address disproportionality (i.e., Lo & Cartledge). Additionally, professional development on FBA has largely been limited to special education personnel only. In order for FBAs to be effective in preventing problem behavior of African American students before they are referred to special education, research on FBA and professional development targeted to general education teachers is critical.This study examined the comparative effects of function-based versus nonfunction-based interventions on the off-task and replacement behavior of African American students at risk for ED and the extent to which general education teachers could implement FBAs with high fidelity. Findings indicated that function-based interventions resulted in higher decreases of off-task behavior than nonfunction-based interventions. Additionally, descriptive results showed that both general education teachers were able to implement FBAs and function-based interventions with high levels of fidelity. Finally, social validity data suggested that teachers felt that FBAs and function-based interventions were of social importance. Teachers' perceptions also changed on the extent to which students had continued needs for disciplinary action and special education services in the ED category. Specifically, teachers felt students were no long in need of special education services or disciplinary action as a result of the function-based interventions. Limitations of the study, suggestions for future research, and implications for practice are also discussed.