De Sousa, Maysa
Development and Initial Validation of a Comprehensive Model of Scarcity
1 online resource (166 pages) : PDF
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
This dissertation aimed to develop a comprehensive model of scarcity. While socioeconomic factors partially explain these disparities, the traditional indicators used in most of the literature fail to fully capture the relationship between SES and health. The use of additional concepts that assess a broader array of actual and perceived economic and social resources may prove beneficial in addressing the direct and indirect causes of health disparities beyond the influence of education, income and occupation. Scarcity is one such concept. The literature on material hardship and time pressure, as well as the literature on cognitive ability, and interpersonal and intrapersonal resources were used to inform the development of the initial model of scarcity. This project employed both qualitative and quantitative methods. Study 1 used a phenomenological approach in order to understand individuals’ shared experiences of scarcity. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 individuals. Results from this study identified the aspects of scarcity that were most salient to participants across the SES spectrum. This study yielded seven major themes, including four possible dimensions that were both objective and subjective in nature: material scarcity, time scarcity, psychological resource scarcity, and physical health scarcity. Quantitative data collection was used in Study 2 to develop a valid scale to measure scarcity. A national sample of 203 participants was used to test the items that were generated to assess scarcity. Exploratory factor analyses showed that a three-factor model of scarcity best fit the data, and evaluation of each of the factors confirmed a time scarcity, a psychological resource scarcity, and a material scarcity dimension. The proposed model has implications for both theoretical and applied practice. This model ensured that the construct of scarcity is as comprehensive as possible by identifying the dimensions of scarcity that are most significant to individuals. Moreover, the results of this study provided the basis for the development of a scarcity measure that can be used in future projects assessing the relationship between SES and health disparities.
SCARCITYSCARCITY SCALESOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
Peterman, AmyReeve, Charlie
Rowan, DianaTullis, Jillian
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2015.
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