Working Memory and Emotion Processing Contributions to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
1 online resource (66 pages) : PDF
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a "persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development," according to the DSM-5, and its prevalence is on the rise in both children and adults. Deficits in executive functions, such as working memory and inhibition, and emotion processing domains, such as emotion recognition and regulation, have been well-documented among individuals diagnosed with ADHD. Less work, however, has been done on mechanisms that may underlie these observed deficits. The present studies sought to investigate one such possible mechanism, the updating of emotional stimuli in working memory. Participants completed an emotion n-back task, in which they were presented with a series of photos depicting faces of five different emotional expressions (happy, sad, neutral, angry, or fearful), and asked to determine whether the current face has the same expression as that presented two faces ago. In Study One, individuals who self-reported a diagnosis of ADHD were quicker to respond, and less accurate in responding to, the emotion n-back task, providing preliminary evidence to suggest the association of a speed-accuracy tradeoff with emotion updating in ADHD. In Study Two, individuals who met criteria for ADHD in childhood, as well as those who met criteria for a current diagnosis in adulthood, were less accurate than controls in disengaging from angry and happy emotional content in working memory. These findings provide preliminary evidence to suggest emotion-specific deficits in emotion updating associated with ADHD.
ADHDEMOTION PROCESSINGEMOTION UPDATINGWORKING MEMORY
Levens, SaraDemakis, GeorgeFaust, Mark
Thesis (M.A.)--University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2016.
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