Boron carbides represent a class of ceramic materials with p-type semiconductor natures, complex structures and a wide homogeneous range of carbon compositions. Bulk boron carbides have long been projected as promising high temperature thermoelectric materials, but with limited performance. Bringing the bulk boron carbides to low dimensions (e.g., nanowires) is believed to be an option to enhance their thermoelectric performance because of the quantum size effects. However, the fundamental studies on the microstructure-thermal property relation of boron carbide nanowires are elusive. In this dissertation work, systematic structural characterization and thermal conductivity measurement of individual straight and kinked boron carbide nanowires were carried out to establish the true structure-thermal transport relation. In addition, a preliminary Raman spectroscopy study on identifying the defects in individual boron carbide nanowires was conducted. After the synthesis of single crystalline boron carbide nanowires, straight nanowires accompanied by the kinked ones were observed. Detailed structures of straight boron carbide nanowires have been reported, but not the kinked ones. After carefully examining tens of kinked nanowires utilizing Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), it was found that they could be categorized into five cases depending on the stacking faults orientations in the two arms of the kink: TF-TF, AF-TF, AF-AF, TF-IF and AF-IF kinks, in which TF, AF and IF denotes transverse faults (preferred growth direction perpendicular to the stacking fault planes), axial faults (preferred growth direction in parallel with the stacking fault planes) and inclined faults (preferred growth direction neither perpendicular to nor in parallel with the stacking fault planes). Simple structure models describing the characteristics of TF-TF, AF-TF, AF-AF kinked nanowires are constructed in SolidWorks, which help to differentiate the kinked nanowires viewed from the zone axes where stacking faults are invisible. In collaboration with the experts in the field of thermal property characterization of one dimensional nanostructures, thermal conductivities of over 60 nanowires including both straight and kinked ones have been measured in the temperature range of 20 – 420 K and the parameters (i.e., carbon contents, diameters, stacking faults densities/orientations and kinks) affecting the phonon transport were explored. The results disclose strong carbon content and diameter dependence of thermal conductivities of boron carbide nanowires, which decreases as lowering the carbon content and diameter. Stacking fault orientations do modulate the phonon transport (κTF < κAF), while stacking fault densities seems to only have obvious effects on phonon transport when meeting certain threshold (~39%). The most interesting discovery is significant reduction of thermal conductivity (15% – 40%) in kinked boron carbide nanowires due to phonon mode conversions and scattering at the kink site. Last but not least, micro-Raman spectroscopy study on individual boron carbide nanowires has been performed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Based on the preliminary data, it is found that the stacking fault orientations have no apparent effect on the Raman scattering, but the stacking fault densities do. In addition, up as the size going down to nanoscale, some Raman modes are inactive while some new ones show up, which is largely ascribed to the quantum confinement effects. One more important finding is that the carbon content also plays important role in the Raman scattering of boron carbide nanowires in the low frequency region (< 600 cm-1), which mainly comes from the 3-atom chains (C-B-C or C-B-B).