The global proliferation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus into novel regions represents a growing public health threat due to their capacity to transmit a variety of arboviruses including those that cause Dengue Fever (DENF), Chikungunya Fever (CHIKF), and Zika Virus (ZIKV). Particularly important in urban regions, where these species have evolved to breed in man-made containers and feed nearly exclusively on human hosts, the threat of vector-borne disease has risen in recent decades due to the growth of cities, progression of climate change, and increase in globalization. While the dynamics of urban Aedes ecology have been well-studied, relatively little is known about the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and the resulting capacity for localized vector population abundance and diseases transmission risk. Here we present three complementary studies into relationship between socioeconomic variation, Aedes mosquito occurrence, and arbovirus transmission risk. First, we present a novel sampling design for Ae. albopictus, using an optimization process that selects ideal survey sites based on both geographic parameters as well as the gradient of socioeconomic variables present in the temperate region of Charlotte, North Carolina. We conducted 12 weeks of surveys for gravid Ae. albopictus across 90 sites during the summer of 2017. Our results suggest that the abundance of gravid Ae. albopictus is negatively associated with the socioeconomic status of the neighborhood. Second, we compare infestation levels of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in four socioeconomically contrasting neighborhoods of tropical Panama City, Panama by comparing 10 weeks of presence-absence data from 40 ovitrap sites. Our results indicate that infestation levels for both species are higher in neighborhoods of lower relative socioeconomic status. Additionally, we find that proximity between socioeconomically contrasting neighborhoods can predict infestation levels by species. Lastly, we sought to identify if socioeconomic and demographic factors play a role in resident knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding DENF, CHIKF, and ZIKV in order to inform effective management procedures for disease prevention in Panama City. Between November 2017 and February 2018, we administered standardized, anonymous knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys to 263 residents split between two neighborhoods of high socioeconomic status (SES) and two neighborhoods of low SES. Our findings suggest that low-SES neighborhoods with high proportions of low income residents, residents over 70 years old, or residents who identify as African-Caribbean may be in higher relative risk of contracting DENF, CHIKF, or ZIKF in Panama City. In summary, the outcomes of this thesis have implications for vector control and disease prevention, through alerting us to the communities that may be experiencing the highest relative risk of virus transmission. Herein, I provide suggestions for taking neighborhood socioeconomic status and specific aspects of resident health literacy and attitude into account for creating more effective vector control and public health outreach campaigns.