OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF INHOMOGENEITIES IN BLUE-EMITTING INGAN/GAN MQWS
1 online resource (168 pages) : PDF
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
The growth of blue-emitting InGaN/GaN MQWs, the system setup of a low temperature PL/EL/IV system for temperature dependent PL/EL/IV spectroscopy, and the system setup of a CLSM with nanometer-scale spectrum measurement and TRPL measurement abilities are described. A range of temperature-dependent PL experimental work, CLSM imaging experimental work and TRPL experimental work on blue-emitting InGaN/GaN MQWs are presented. In temperature-dependent PL measurements, the decreasing of spectrum-integrated PL intensity with increasing temperature is explained with a two-nonradiative-channel model, in which the two nonradiative channels correspond to the thermal activation of carriers out of the strongly localized states and the weakly localized states, respectively. The `S-shaped' red-blue-red shift of PL peak energy and the `inverse S-shaped' change of PL FWHM when temperature increases from 10 K to 300 K are explained with carrier localization and carrier dynamics. CLSM imaging and nanometer-scale PL spectral measurements show that the PL intensity fluctuates in micrometer scale, and that the bandgap energy in bright region is tens of meV smaller than that in dark region. The small-bandgap-energy regions are localization centers which limit the diffusion of the carriers and prevent carriers from diffusing to the NRRCs. Nanometer-scale TRPL measurements are conducted on blue-emitting InGaN/GaN MQWs for the first time, as far as the author knows. The measurements show that both bright region and dark region are characterized by two lifetimes: fast decay lifetime τ1 is smaller than 3 ns and slow decay lifetime τ2 is longer than 10 ns. The fast decay with shorter lifetime τ1 corresponds to the carrier localization in weakly localized states, where the radiative recombination is more quenched by NRRCs and also competes with carrier transfer intro strongly localized states. And the slow decay with longer lifetime τ2 corresponds carrier localization in strongly localized states. The fact that both fast decay and slow decay exist in both bright region and dark region indicates that both bright region and dark region has small bandgap energy fluctuation in themselves. Measurements show that the slow decay lifetime τ2 in bright region is longer than that in dark region, indicating a higher probability of nonradiative recombination in dark region or carrier transporting from dark region to bright region. Measurements show that larger bandgap energy difference between small-bandgap-energy regions and large-bandgap-energy regions provides stronger carrier localization effect, via the presence of higher CLSM image average intensity, larger PL intensity ratio and longer smaller-bandgap-energy slow decay lifetime τ2 when larger bandgap energy difference occurs. The effect of MOCVD growth parameters on MQW bandgap energy fluctuations and average intensity was analyzed. It was found out that by increasing growth pressure, decreasing growth rate, increasing growth temperature, increasing effective V/III ratio, and increasing gas speed, the bandgap energy difference between bright region and dark region increases, leading to higher average PL intensity.
Zhang, YongHasan, Mohamad-AliHer, Tsing-HuaGbur, Greg
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 2014.
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